A Canadian Crime n’ Shame

The fear of crime in Canada is gaining ground on the supposedly fear of terrorism and has outlasted the fear of communism. At least this is what has been communicated to us by corporate controlled media. So I began to pour over statistics, graphs, charts and opinions to hopefully seek some sort of truth or at least perspective on the fear of crime and asking, how bad is it? Really?

We are told that crime is a major problem in Canada. We are given statistics and percentages on how bad it is, but the numbers are in relation to some really big numbers, for example most crime rates are worked out as being how many incidents per 100,000 people. Which is fine and dandy but in reality our worlds do not consist of 100,000 people. On average, most people come into contact with about 35 to 45 people over a week of our lives, some daily, others once a week. The people who are actually a part of our daily lives, from loved ones to friends to grocery store clerks to workmates to activity partners, et al. Yes there are people who come into contact with more people just as there are people who come into contact with far less, but on average, 35 to 45 people are a part of our lives. This number does not include simple texting or e-mailing buddies or Facebook “friends” but actual people who we interact with face to face.

This is much like when, over 10,000 years ago we were small groups of hunters and gatherers, of about 35-45 people foraging out an existence. Any problems which would arise were probably dealt with either a simple grunt in a certain tone, or the fact that in any dispute between two members of the group it was perhaps taken care of because two sets of parents, multiple brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts and even a couple of grandparents, if lucky, would provide some influence and even some conflict resolution advise. After figuring out how to grow food our small groups would bump into each other and combine to eventually form villages of about 100 people, where we had to learn for the first time how to live alongside strangers and get along with them. Soon enough close-knit communities of a couple of hundred would form, collectively producing food and providing services to one another, then came the cities, with the first ones having about a thousand inhabitants. After this time everything became a numbers game as populations rose, while the control went to the very few. This has not changed. And of course proportionally, as a population rises there is more evil in the world but there is also more good.

Through the prehistoric age and the growth of civilizations to the Middle Ages and even up to the pre-modern era, the odds of dying violently averaged 15%, a more than 1 in 6 chance you would be killed, according to Steven Pinker in his new book, “The Better Angels of Our Nature”.  He adds that sometimes, the rate of dying violently would rise to 60%, for violence was much a part of everyone’s daily life. By the 20th century the odds of a violent death dropped down to 3%, including wars, genocides and famines. From about 1500 to early in the 20th century, war became the norm as to death and killing each other. Seventy years ago half the world was at war, where in its last few months more than one million people were being killed every month, an average death rate of about 300 per 100,000 humans.  But since around 1970, wars began happening less frequently.  Today, if you include Afghanistan, Iraq, Sudan, Libya, Syria and Somalia, countries whose whole populations are affected by war, only accounts for just over 2% of the seven billion humans who live on the planet, with the death by war rate well below one person per 100,000. The odds of a violent death today not caused by war, is three one-hundredths of a percent. The actual leading risk factor for death today, for males 15 to 59, worldwide, is the legal psychoactive drug we call alcohol.

The homicide rates in most places on the planet today are fifty times less than the homicide rate 500 years ago and since 1990 has been on a downward spiral, as are most all other crimes, whether property or violent. But many governments continue to spend billions of dollars and create huge bureaucracies in an attempt to change the culture of legal and corrections systems from rehabilitation to punishment, thus they need the populations to fear crime. This is what we are doing in Canada. And instead of paying out millions in prevention, we pay out billions in incarceration and continue to deal with repeat offenders, who only represent about 5% of criminals but who are doing over 50% of the crime and along with drug addicted property criminals, crime has become a way of life. But really, how many bad guys are out there to warrant the huge, ever increasing costs to deal with them and how big of a problem is the victimization of Canadian society that causes us so much worry and fear? The answers I found were not what I expected nor were the stories that the numbers told.

At first glance, crime statistics seem huge and often times confusing because it’s hard to relate the numbers to our daily lives. In Canada last year (2010) there were 2,095,921 criminal code violations, less traffic offences, and included 437,316 violent crimes, 1,311,891 property crimes, 536,151 cases of theft under $5000, 108,529 drug violations, including 6938 cases of drug trafficking (3177 jailed) and 7314 incidents of drug possession (only 887 jailed but 3860 having to pay fines and/or restitution) and 554 homicides, with 79% of all crimes non-violent. In 2009/2010 there were 95,345 cases of violent crime before the Canadian Courts, of these 38,276 were for common assault, 21,549 major assaults and 263 cases of murder. Also before the courts were 96,863 cases of property crime, of which there were 42,010 cases of theft, over 48,000 impaired driving charges (with 39,182 convictions) and 15,272 charges of drug possession, of which there were 7,314 convictions.

In 2008/2009, all crimes included, there were 392,907 cases involving 1,161,018 charges before the Criminal Courts of Canada. Of these cases, 40% of the defendants go to court unrepresented, while only 4-5% of all cases are actually sentenced. The most frequent cases were impaired driving at 11%, theft at 10%, common assault at 9%, failure to comply with a court order at 9% and breach of probation at 8%. Over half (55%) of all sentences imposed in 2008/09 were for one month or less, while sentences of two years or longer represented 4% of all convictions. The median length of sentence was for one month, with the median average for killing someone was five years and for attempted murder the median sentence was for 4.5 years.

In Canada, on any given day, about 35,000 people (14,000 in Federal custody and 21,000 in Provincial jails) are under lock and key, 1,987 of these are under 18 years of age, and over 120,000 people are under some sort of supervision in the community. Over an average year just over 250,000 Canadians spend some time in jail, a few, repeatedly. In fact the rate of those who spend time in prison and who will relapse into further crime and antisocial behaviour once they are allowed out is 50-80%. Though only representing 4% of the Canadian population, 25% of all admissions into prison are Native Canadians, with 11% of all admissions women. The costs to keep a convict in prison, varies whether it’s a Federal or Provincial facility and depending on the security level of the facility. Federally it costs altogether about $300,000 to keep a woman in jail and between, $140,000 to $223,000 to keep a man. There are fewer costs, but more inmates in a Provincial facility but it seems the overall average cost to keep someone in prison in Canada is about $90,000 – $104,000 per year. The majority of those convicted of crime are on probation, parole or serving conditional sentences and not in prison, with the cost to supervise each parolee about $39,000 per year. Canada’s annual expenditures to operate and maintain its prisons is currently about $4.3 billion, this is estimated to rise to $9.3 billion by 2015/16.

With the new legislation being put forth by the current Canadian Government the prison population will rise, not because of any rise in crime rates but because those that negatively affect society the most and are the most violent, which is a very, very small group, will finally be held accountable, especially the legislation that contains new mandatory minimum sentencing for violent crimes and child abuse. But this will also put further financial strain on an already crumbling judicial system, because mandatory minimums will mean more trials by defendants who really have nothing to lose. Also important to government, is the building of  prisons for economic reasons; jobs for an average construction budget per prison of $170 million, for more prison guards and for the boost to communities where the prisons are built, which will have average costs of $42 million in annual operations. The price tag of these new bills being enacted include $386 million for stiffer parole standards, $200 million for the elimination of early parole and the actual building of new prisons estimated to be about $2 billion and going up every year. Since the current Canadian government came into power in 2006 the cost of the federal prison system has gone up 86%, while at the same time most all crime rates have dropped more than 10 percent. Every province has seen a decrease in violent crime, except Newfoundland and Labrador who experienced a 13% increase. The highest violent crime rates in Canada are in Nunavut and the North West Territories with 6764 and 6448 incidents per 100,000. The Canadian average is 1282 per 100,000. The only crime rates that seem to be increasing slightly are sexual assaults, use of a firearm, criminal harassment, child porn and some drug offences.

The need for more jail cells has to do with these few Federal laws that will soon come into play, such as a crackdown on dangerous, repeat and violent offenders; the Truth in Sentencing Act, where in the past offenders who were jailed awaiting trial, with an average waiting time of 10-12 months, finally got their day in court and were sentenced, time served would be a two for one deal. If you waited in jail for six months to be sentenced to a year in prison you would be released because your six months served counts for a year of time; minimum sentences for serious drug offences such as those that have to do with organized crime and when a weapon or violence is used. As to the gang bangers, I feel that it should be taken into account that whatever charge they may face they are acting as a member of a criminal organization and if proven guilty, should receive an automatic ten year term with no bail or less time, with all assets proven to be got by illegitimate means being confiscated and the monies used to feed and house the poor; and mandatory time for fraud of over one million dollars, which is very good since white-collar crime and fraud affect our economy and way of life the most. Consider the fact that the Canadian government today pays over $15 billion on police, prisons and courts, and only $70 million on crime prevention, while the cost to the economy from fraud is well over $30 billion.

Much more than drug addicts stealing for their addiction alone, armed robbers, car thieves, violent criminals and property crime, the most economic harm being done to Canada is by white-collar criminals who live in the most expensive homes and who have the most impressive resumes. The RCMP alone, receive over 25,000 complaints of fraud per year, about 430 a day. It is estimated that only about 4% of victims of fraud are willing to come forward because our society continues to believe in the myth that the victims of fraud can’t be too bright and have to be pretty stupid to fall for some scam, much like in the past where rape was somehow the woman’s fault and men were too manly to go for a checkup or prostate exam. Mass marketing fraud alone takes in about $10 billion per year; the 2-10% of the $190 billion that Canada spends on Health Care every year, of which over 70% goes to wages, is lost to fraud costing over 19 billion dollars each year. The fastest growing crime in Canada is Identity theft, 70% of which is unauthorized credit card use, with costs to the economy about $2.5 billion a year. Finally we have personal injury fraud which the Insurance Bureau of Canada estimates as costing nearly $500 million every year.

Staggering as the numbers cited above are its hard to put them it into context, even though nearly all of them are broken down and also listed as rates per 100,000 people, which doesn’t help much when trying to figure out how bad is crime within the group of people that make up each one of our lives. The problem with trying to see how much crime occurs amongst a group of 40 people is that by the time you break down the numbers mathematically, most all crime rates are well below one person, indeed, in most cases the numbers are one one-thousandth or less of a percent below one person. So I thought okay, break crime down to see how it relates to a world of one hundred people. The numbers were still in the one one-hundreth or one tenth percent range below one. Finally I threw caution to the wind and went with, how does crime affect one thousand of us humans living together? With the one thousand humans being about the size of the community we live in on a daily basis.

I am very aware of the intangibles of what type of people we come into contact with, where we live, where we work and what type of communities we live in, whether urban or rural, high income or low income. And of course most of all crime happens in the cities. Halifax, Winnipeg and Vancouver lead all provinces in violent crimes with well over 1000 per 100,000 people. These three cities also lead the country in property crimes. But for this article I am basically picking an average group of Canadians and simply trying to put some sort of perspective on the fear of crime that is being blasted at us by the media and government. Looking at the human perspective and not just the economic perspective, for after decades of dropping crime rates we are being made to feel less safe. Are we to be afraid? And just how many truly bad apples are out there? Surprisingly this is what I found.

First off, when one is going over statistics that have anything to do with government it is an adventure, with many statistics over five years old. But what gets clearly confusing is the Federal government’s theory on “unreported crime”. With straight faces they state that most incidents of crime that occur are not reported to police. This includes 72% of property theft, 63% of household victimization incidents, 48% of break-ins, 50% of vehicles stolen and 77% of household property thefts that were supposedly not reported. They even state that only 29% of violent crime is reported to police, meaning less than three out of every ten violent crimes is reported. How do they know that much goes unreported? And does it matter when all available Canadian government crime statistics plainly state that they do not include crimes not reported, one can only wonder. Researching this article I stuck to the statistics we know, that were reported and not what we may believe them to be.

So, what are our perceptions of our well being, personal safety, security and protection from harm today?  How likely are we to encounter crime in the security of our communities? In 2004, 94% of Canadians over the age of fifteen were satisfied with their confidence in the security of their community and with their personal safety from crime, 61% felt their local police forces were doing a good job, 90% felt safe walking in their neighbourhood alone after dark, 80% were not worried at all about being home alone at night, and 42% of women and 71% of men were confident and not worried at all in having to ride a bus after dark.

On a side note, I came across these numbers; in 2005, 63% of Canadians were very confident that if they were ever to lose their job they could find an equivalent position within six months, only 35% of Canadians felt they had lost control of their economic future, and 29% of people believed themselves to be more tolerant toward ethnic groups, but then these numbers do not include unreported feelings.

As to an average group of one thousand Canadians and crime rates goes, many rates are so small that they are tenths and sometimes hundredths  of a percent below 1 person per 1000 people doing something wrong.  Suicide, drug trafficking and drug possession rates are far below 1 person. One of the rarest things to happen in a group of one thousand is abduction, a murder or attempted murder; the current murder rate in Canada is just over 1.6 murders per 100,000 people.

In 2009/2010, for every 1000 people, the median age was 39 years old, with 140 individuals over 65 years of age. Two to three people die by heart attack, stroke or cancer each year and altogether there were nearly eight deaths per year, but on the other side of the coin there were ten births. Half the population were overweight and one out of every four people were considered obese. Over two hundred people would experience a mental illness in their lifetime. Eighty would suffer severe depression, ten would be bipolar (manic depressive), ten schizophrenic and at least fifty would suffer from anxiety disorders.

About 80% of the population had at least two true friends. Though there are two exceptions to this fact, women under 25 yrs and seniors over 65 yrs. Half the population said people can be generally trusted; the other half said one cannot be too careful.  Two hundred and fifty people had no one with whom they could talk to, concerning personal issues or important matters.

There were 261 families, 161 with children. Average amount of children per family was just over one per household. 84% of all couples were married with six per cent living common law. There were 4.7 marriages and two divorces each year.  Included in this community were 117 dogs and 205 cats.

Three individuals were Native Canadians and the community had seven people immigrate and only two people emigrating. Nearly 200 people were born outside Canada. Average weekly earnings were $776 per week or $20 per hour. One person earned in excess of a million dollars with another nine individuals making well over $200,000 annually. Most often these ten people were living a superficial and privileged life, blissfully unaffected by the rest of the population, even if aware of any problems and combined, they held and controlled over 50% of the total wealth. About forty individuals made in excess of $100,000 annually, while the other nine hundred and fifty citizen’s median annual income was about $22,800, most living paycheck to paycheck and having a level of debt which was 107% of their personal income. Meanwhile there were seven who were homeless. With a workforce of approximently 650 people, 50 would be unemployed. Anything good, important, healthy and reliable in and for the economy would cost more. Of the 1000 citizens, 48% (480) would actually vote in any election, with those being elected only needing, on average, 250 votes to reign supreme over the population.

There was one cop per 203 citizens, five in total, with one in three calls answered by them involving someone with a mental illness. One hundred and fifty people owned about 300 firearms. There were 69 criminal code violations (excluding traffic offences), 13 of them violent crime, of which there were eight assaults, one robbery, one sexual assault and two cases of someone uttering threats. There was six alcohol related injuries and illnesses, with one illicit drug use related injury or illness. The blood alcohol level was above the legal limit in 42% of all high-risk injuries, with 100 persons being high-risk drinkers. One hundred and thirty-two people smoked marijuana over the year, with about 44 of these recreational users. The big difference between alcohol and drugs and how it affects society is that in most all instances alcohol affects kids and women through violence, while drugs affect kids and women through neglect.

At the same time there were nearly 35 cases of property crime, the lowest rate is has been since 1970, including six break-ins, fifteen cases of theft under $5000, including thefts of personal property such as wallets, cards and jewelry, eight mischief makers, three vehicles stolen, two individuals disturbing the peace, one person caught in possession of stolen goods (which is the only property crime not dropping) and three incidents of fraud. Other criminal code violations include five people for justice violations, four for breaking various other criminal codes, three impaired driving charges, four individuals breaking Federal statutes and three drug violations. One person would have a 50% chance of being found guilty and actually going to jail, with three others getting probation. With 682 licensed drivers and a total of 854 vehicles registered, there were 61 road accidents (road fatalities were less than one person).  Over 200 people were victiminized by all crimes combined.

So there you have it. Comparatively, we are living in one of the most peaceful times in all of history. The question is how long will it remain so? Especially considering the facts that the roots of crime are when people do not feel in control of their lives and don’t feel a part of the community. When this occurs many find it very difficult to make healthy choices in things like diet, exercise, smoking, sexual behaviour or long term health. Crime rates have little to do with poverty and instead have much to do with the inequality between rich and poor, which creates resentment and violence. Most crimes are committed because of human suffering, including the sense of alienation from life and feelings of emptiness, which leads to hostility, depression, anxiety, addictions, prejudice and stress. Focusing just on these root causes themselves could reduce crime levels by more than 30% and be a fraction of the cost we spend on incarceration.

Canada’s overworked, inadequate and broken criminal justice system is the only public policy we have that is reactive, instead of proactive like all the others. All other public policies that deal with threats to public safety, health and well being focus on preventing crime before it occurs. A couple of examples being contaminated foods and traffic safety, both proactive. It is imperative we repair our failing court system. Not necessarily being tougher by just enacting more mandatory sentencing and having, appointed by government and not elected, judges becoming simple clerks of another bureaucracy, but restoring the minimum requirements of a legal system such as access, timelines and fairness.

As it is, the reasons that conviction rates for crime are low are many, but one of the main problems is that once a law is enacted it is deemed perfect in all cases. While in reality and on the common sense level, every incident is not necessarily a charge or arrest. This is how mandatory sentencing erases the greyness of human nature and becomes unfair in an unequal society. In most all cases the police are doing their jobs and catching the bad guys but unfortunately the ailing courts are letting them out, either too early or too often. This is eroding confidence in the justice system and in each other. Citizens accept the rule of law because they believe that justice will be done. When this does not happen two things occur, those that feel wronged will be tempted to take matters into their own hands and wrongdoers will continue in their devious ways, knowing they will not be held accountable and suffer no legal consequences. If our justice system does not consider all the evidence, deliver a verdict and impose proper penalties then both the vigilantes and the rotten apples are encouraged to continue their ways and a sense of injustice creeps into our society affecting how everyone involved in a relationship with society behaves. But we have also become a society where we have decided it is better to let nine guilty people go free than risk putting one innocent person in prison.

Instead of being in fear of crime, we should be dealing with the inequality in our modern world that manifests such behaviour and deal with the false belief that we are all victims. What’s going to happen when our children’s generation grows up after being raised, where once bad behaviour was simply not acceptable it is now termed a mental illness?

In Canada nearly 70% of children entering kindergarten have been diagnosed with some sort of syndrome or disorder in their behaviour and are either medicated for it or in therapy for it. A whole generation of self-entitlement created through fostering the belief of victimization. Too many of the youngest amongst us are not being held responsible for their actions and behaviour because it’s not their fault. In the 2010 Vancouver School District Incident Report it cites that from 2006-2009 violent assaults by students on staff doubled, injuries to staff tripled.

As mentioned earlier we must start focusing on the root causes of crime. For instance, Vancouver is one of the wealthiest cities in Canada and yet has one of the highest rates of petty crime in North America. Vehicle smash-and-grabs alone are four times higher than the largest city in Canada, Toronto. While Newfoundland and Labrador, the two poorest provinces in Canada, have the lowest rates of petty crime. The root cause of Vancouver’s high crime rates and gang problems is inequality, which brings poverty, addiction and the disadvantaged, who lack access to jobs, education, housing and health.

As to firearms, the majority of crimes where weapons are used are by members of criminal and economic organizations which we call gangs. They barter and swap them and use them to carry out their daily business. Of all firearms used in homicides in Canada, 64% are handguns and 12% prohibited weapons, while all deaths in Canada involving a firearm, 78% are suicides and only 17% homicides. In 2010 there were 170 shooting homicides, about 32% of all homicides, dropping the total homicide rate (1.62 per 100,000 people) to its lowest level since 1996. Put it this way, if you have a gun in your home and a pool, your child will be more than a thousand times more likely to be killed by pool.

As to the most occurring crimes of assault and theft, the Old Testament is filled with rules and laws on how one should behave, some I don’t agree with, but these two I find interesting. In a fight or quarrel and one is beaten badly, but does not die, the assaulter is to pay for any lost time of the victim at his or her work as well as pay for all health costs. And if caught red-handed and proven to have stolen something during daylight hours, you the thief are to pay double the value as well as any cost of any needed repairs. If a thief breaks into a home at night, they pay triple and if they become injured or killed, no penance to victim.

Then we have alcohol, which drains $15 billion a year from the Canadian economy due to lost productivity from sickness, premature death, healthcare, roadblocks and patrols to catch the drunk drivers and law enforcement costs, plus the untold thousands of people who have been affected by the carnage. The healthcare costs due to alcohol are more than the total cost of cancer care, while drinking rates are increasing, more frequently and more heavily. With the world evolving faster than our minds and souls, drugs and alcohol are deemed the salvation of the human spirit and are the refuges for many. They keep us alive in a realm of dreams and hope. We just have to pull out the old dictionary and look up that word, moderation, again. In my research I found that many drug offences are not included in most national crime statistics, so I will leave that issue alone right now and leave it for a future article.

So it looks like we’ll soon be spending nearly $10 billion on the corrections system, $2 billion of it to build housing for the estimated rise in inmates who will be mandatory sentenced, refused parole or deemed not to be allowed out in public, all 4000 of them; works out to be about $500,000 per cell. When added to the present prison population, the number of incarcerated in Canada will be about 35-40,000 individuals, about 130 per 100,000 people, who will be housed, taken care of and fed because they cannot deal and live with others amiably. They have either serious anger issues, or were drunk, or even just screwed up, the old wrong place and the wrong time, or made the wrong decision or said, acted or behaved the wrong way. A small percentage of them will either never be released or should never be released. While many others will get out one day and the odds are that they’ll soon be back in. All of this kind of dispels the illusion we are being fed that there is a crime wave going on and a deluge of bad people flooding the system.

Another perspective that is confusing to me is that we will spend $10 billion a year housing, say a soon to be 40,000 inmates, while at the same time we only allocate about $3 billion a year for the budgets of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, the Canadian institutes of the Health Research, Innovation, Social Services and Humanities Research Councils. Even the net tuition paid by all university and college students in Canada is only $3.5 billion.

Further to perspective, our southern neighbours, the United States spends $68 billion a year on a corrections system which has a prison population that is growing 13 times faster than the general population. It’s been proven to be too costly and simply doesn’t work, with many States starting to focus on community based programs, treatment, probation and parole, which they have found to be only one-tenth of the cost of incarceration and that it is also much cheaper to reach disaffected youth through education and prevention, then waiting for them to become mixed up with a gang and try to deal with them after the fact.

Today the Canadian government face many difficult decisions on where they should put our money, especially in this time of world economic crises. Health care, education or prisons, I say work on the first two and you’ll need less of the third. But I feel the current Canadian government and their arrogant attitude and greed for power speaks volumes. They feel they are above most Canadians, even the members of the opposition parties, and blindly follow their leader, never daring to speak out. Their ethics muffled as they allow themselves to be pulled along by a string, very much like they are pulling our strings, playing with our anxieties and mental well being or rather lack of it. Their behaviour and agenda creates the very thing crime feeds off of, inequality. This is where we could run into difficulties for there are many countries that don’t even have a criminal code, indeed in Arabian lexicon, the concept of justice means more than democracy, but you can’t have justice without democracy.

We must realize that many laws and legislation that governments enact, we are led to believe they are made to protect people’s lives while in actual fact many new laws are the by-products of insufficiency. The crimes most of us come into contact with in our lives on a regular, but rare occurrence, is theft, assaults, fraud and street crime. Instead of pumping billions into dealing with issues after the fact and after victims have been produced, perhaps we could start taking some of our well earned money the government receives from us and put some millions into the prevention of crime, solving the roots of crime. Hire more police, expand social services and educational programs, make gang recruitment illegal and create programs aimed at reducing gang violence, make addiction a medical problem and expand restorative justice programs.

Crime happens when people don’t feel a part of their community. Getting people back into the fold and feeling as though they mean something and believing in themselves brings the results needed to maybe one day reach a point where violence stops making sense, lost in the emotions of appreciation, gratitude, empathy, forgiveness, love, peace and joy. If this were to happen it would lead further along to better physical and mental health, from which could only flower inspired leadership and enhanced creativity.

The majority of  the Canadian government’s new crime legislation’s costs will be borne by the provinces, who will have a hard time bearing the additional load and which in reality will not even make the streets safer. The question remains, can we afford what we need to spend on the roots of crime instead, which will be much cheaper?  We can’t afford not to, is the answer.

 

 

 

 

http://news.nationalpost.com/2011/07/21/crime-rate-down-across-canada/

http://www.cbc.ca/news/story/2010/06/01/con-fraud-cost.html

http://whyprohibition.ca/blogs/jacob-hunter/canadas-federal-jail-population-set-rise-70-percent

http://www.cbc.ca/news/interactives/crime-canada/

http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2011/10/25/f-firearms-numbers.html

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/start-debut-eng.html

–          Crime and Justice –  Crime and offences – Summary tables

–          Population size and growth

–          Perceptions of personal safety / security / Indicators of well being

–          Victims of property crimes

–          Crime rates

–          Correctional services

–          Marriage and Divorce

 

Ian Mulgrew, Canadians buy into Harper’s crime crackdown, Vancouver Sun newspaper, April 30, 2011 Pg A13

Gordon Hoekstra and Jonathan Fowlie, Cost of crime law worries provinces, Times Colonist newspaper, November 2, 2011, Pg A9

Doug Saunders, Lucky for us, war and violence are just so last millennium, The Globe and Mail newspaper, October 1, 2011, Pg F9

Steven Pinker, The Better Angels of Our Nature, 2011

Hannon Proudfoot, Canwest News service, Social Networks of Canadians, Times-Colonist newspaper, January 18, 2009, Pg A8.

The Holy Bible, New International Version, New York International Bible Society, 1978.

 

 

 

 

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